The X are a collection of 972 texts discovered between 1946 and 1956 that consist of biblical manuscripts from what is now known as the Hebrew Bible and extra-biblical documents. They were discovered in a series of twelve caves around the site known as Wadi Qumran near what is now the West Bank, between 1946 and 1956 by the Bedouin people and archaeologists. The texts themselves comprise of a variety of religious documents written in Aramaic, Greek and Hebrew and date from 250 BCE to 68 AD. Almost all of the Hebrew Bible is represented in the X as they include fragments from every book of the Old Testament except for the Book of Esther. One of the most intriguing manuscripts however is the Copper Scroll, a sort of ancient treasure map that lists dozens of gold and silver caches. While the other texts are written in ink on parchment or animal skins, this curious document features Hebrew and Greek letters chiseled onto metal sheets—perhaps, as some have theorized, to better withstand the passage of time.
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